Cretinism is an endocrine disease arising because of dysfunction of thyroid gland. It is expressed by lag of physical and mental development. There is an endemic cretinism (multiple cases in a certain area) and sporadic (cases which aren’t connected to the area). A cretinism can be a congenital pathology but sometimes happens in development of child.



Causes of cretinism development are connected with shortage of hormones of a thyroid gland. It can be heriditary disorder of ferment system due to what there is a nontoxic goiter and a sporadic cretinism. In other cases a cretinism is connected with disorder of thyroid gland formation, its underdevelopment, the wrong locating or total absence. Danger is constituted by goiter which hast pregnant mother, her treatment with a radioiodine, shortage of iodine and selenium. Marriage between relatives is also one of cretinism causes.


At a cretinism physical development is broken. Growth of teeth retards, body do not grow (nanism). Patients have a disproportionate body build (big head, short extremities), deformations of bones and joints, wide round face with blunt expression, wide distance between eyes, large tongue, a poor facial expression. Hearing sense and the speech are broken. Internals are diminished, sexual are underdeveloped. Mental development suffers (from a mild debility to an idiocy). Patient is flaccid, sleepy.

Cretinism treatment

Patients with a cretinism are compelled to be treated all their life. Hormones of a thyroid gland should be prescribed as soon as possible (thyroidin, triiodothyronine). For prophylaxis it is important to use enough iodine with nutrition. Usually salt going on sale is iodinated.

Comments are closed.