Mental Disorders At Alcoholism

Alcoholism involves destruction of human mentality and his personality.

Changes in person of alcoholic are noticeable at the first stage of disease. The focus of interest is narrowed, former interests disappear. Any subjects for conversation flow in conversations about alcohol. Each public action or holiday is estimated from the point of view of opportunity to drink.

But critical attitude is still kept, the person tries to drive away thoughts of alcohol though it is difficult. The alcoholic still has sense of shame, and the criticism causes annoyance. More and more time the alcoholic spends his time with the same people, as he is.

If measures aren’t taken, mental and physical dependence grows; personality of alcoholic is radically reconstructed.

Subsequently a gradual callousness appears, experiences and thin feelings are erased. Alcoholic spends time with a family more seldom and teetotal acquaintances, as often as possible leaves the house to drink. He looks for suitable reasons for it (hunting, fishing).

Falsity, cunning, resourcefulness is inherent to all alcoholics. At first these qualities are shown seldom when it is necessary to explain late arrival home or expenditure of large sum of money. Later the alcoholic isn’t ashamed and ceases to lie on trifles, openly takes out money, things. Promises to stop drinking, beginning a new life, which alcoholic gives only for the sake of achievement of his purpose, are false.

As a result, the person completely degrades. There is a cruelty in relation to own family, call of duty, responsibility disappears; apathy to relatives, selfishness is formed. The mood unstable, good is sharply replaced by fault-finding and aggression. The thinking of alcoholic becomes more and more primitive.

Psychasthenic Psychopathy

Psychasthenic psychopathy is a kind of a psychopathy with prevalence in patient character of irritable delicacy, lowered self-rating, self-distrust.

There is a congenital predisposition. Also development of this type of a psychopathy is promoted by misaducation (the acquired psychopathy): excessive guardianship of seniors, desire of parents to control the child’s acts, underestimation of his own opportunities, belittling of child abilities.

Psychasthenic psychopathy symptoms

People suffering from psychasthenic psychopathy are shy, easily vulnerable, self-distrusting. They don’t estimate adequately their opportunities and so are inclined to recheck constantly their actions for the sake of achievement of the best result, never remain pleased with results of their activity. Indecision is inherent to them, such people are completely deprived of passion and possess excessive care, forsee the actions on many steps forward, minimizing risk of negative result. These persons are distinguished by extreme pedantry, commitment to detailed performance of certain actions, even when it isn’t necessary. Patients also impose similar requirements to people around, and develop rituals for protection against possible danger.

Treatment and prophylaxis of a psychasthenic psychopathy

At an exacerbation of illness (decompensation) application of tranquilizers and sedative preparations is necessary. For rising of self-confidence, prevention of neurosises development, psychotherapy and a self-suggestion is applied.

For exacerbations prophylaxis it is necessary to choose a profession taking into account features of patient character. The rational job placement helps to eliminate psychoinjuring situations as much as possible.

Oligophrenia

Oligophrenia is an aphrenia, congenital or acquired in early childhood. Intellectual underdevelopment is characteristic for this disease. Usually the oligophrenia arises owing to pathology transferred pregnant mother have had or by the child in infancy. It can be an infection (rubella, congenital lues), ionizing radiation, rhesus conflict of mother and fetus, damage of fetus in patrimonial ways.

The disease is presented by the following forms (on severity):

1. Debility. Minor form of disease.

2. Imbecility. Medium form.

3. Idiocy. Is the most serious form of aphrenia.

Diagnostics of an oligophrenia

Difficulties at detection of disease are connected with need to distinguish it from early schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia have partial development retardation. Also schizophrenia is expressed by autism, pathological imaginations. Oligophrenia also needs to be distinguished from the acquired aphrenia at which there are different emotional symptoms, the speech of patient is rather rich, the abstract thinking remains.

Treatment of oligophrenia

If the disease has a cause connected with metabolism a corresponding diet should be prescribed. If necessary, hormonal treatment is carried out. To stimulate mental activity, use Pyracetamum (Nootropilum), Aminalonum. A vitamin therapy is carried out. For putting off the instability of mentality and suppression of perverted inclinations use Neuleptilum, Phenazepamum, sonapax.

Medical and educational actions are important. Oligophrenic persons are trained at specialized schools and technical training college, boarding schools. These establishments promote adaptation of patients in society.

Mystical Delirium

The mystical delirium differs in expressed mystical content of patient experiences, his conviction that there is something mysterious, inexplicable. The mystical delirium includes crazy ideas of religious contents, stories of the patient about the other world.

Religious experience requires consideration of religious and mystical states. Naturally, there are differences between not pathological and pathological mystical phenomena. But differences between them aren’t obvious. Inspirations, revelations, prophecies, apparitions, ecstatic experiences and obsession are known for many millennia. They are understood ambiguously by psychiatrists; isn’t found out when they express religious experience and when relate to psychopathology.

The mystical feeling of release and pleasure pulls together religious and mystical states with a maniacal phase of affective psychosis. Voices, orders, feeling of management of the highest forces are similar to a hallucinatory paranoid syndrome. Leaving from the outside world and detachment are close to a schizophrenic autism. In mystical states speech is often unclear, elaborate, and it reminds confusion of the speech at acute psychoses. The mysticism is interpreted in psychiatry as being on the verge of normal state of mentality and psychosis.

Mystical experiences have characteristics:

- Impossibility to express completely in words the state.

- Intuitivism (penetration, inaccessible to common mind into truth depth that is expressed by revelations, internal enlightenment).

- Short duration (temporary restrictions of religious and mystical states for 30-120 minutes).

- Will passivity.

Megalomania

Megalomania is a disorder of mentality at which the consciousness or behavior of the person is seriously broken. It is shown in revaluation of own importance, popularity, wealth, power, significance. The megalomania isn’t considered as an individual disease, but as a symptom at maniacal syndrome, paranoia, or as one of inferiority complex types.

Causes of disorder development have not been yet investigated, but it is supposed that megalomania causes are:

- strong stressful situations;

- mental injuries;

- complications of general paralysis;

- affective psychoses;

- paraphrenic schizophrenia.

Symptoms of megalomania:

- revaluation by the patient of the importance, physical and mental abilities;

- narcissism (narcissism);

- hyperactivity, garrulity;

- concentration on own thoughts.

- frequent change of mood;

- lack of interest to the opinion of people around;

- aggression in relation to people around;

- sleeplessness.

Disease is dangerous with possible development of a depression and aphrenia.

Apply the preparations containing lithium, neuroleptics, fenotiazin for megalomania treatment. It is necessary to treat a basic disease – maniac-depressive psychosis, schizophrenia. Good results are provided by psychotherapy. Patients with megalomania need social rehabilitation; their interaction with society is complicated.

Manichean Delirium

Manichean delirium is the most acute kind of antagonistic delusion. It was described by the French psychiatrists for the first time in 1922. Some psychiatrists identify antagonistic and Manichean delirium, or refer the last to kinds of delusion of grandeur.

The Manichean delirium differs with its mental duality. At this delirium the patient is talking about antagonism of two resisting forces leading the world – good and evil. All events are surveyed by the patient in Manichean delirium as a fight of benevolent and hostile forces (in relation to him or someone other). In the center of the fight, from the point of view of the patient having a global value, there is a patient’s person, he is sure that fight is conducted for his soul and happens in his body. Friends (patrons) and enemies (persecutors) are various, these are certain people, parties, the peoples. The outcome of fight is forecasted as fatal: crash of the world, universal victory of “power of darkness”, and “Disbelievers”. At the same time very often the delirium is followed by ecstatic mood and manifest fear.

By contents the Manichean delirium is similar to mystical, apocalyptic and messianic delirium. The crazy plot is formed within a hallucinatory paranoid syndrome. The contents, duration, mechanisms of formation of delirium (hallucination, sensual) depend on a form of schizophrenic psychosis.

The patients suffering from acute Manichean delirium are often deadly to people around. It is defined by features of delirium and content of interpreting. For the non-specialist it is extremely difficult to define that it is a patient with a serious mental disorder as dysphasia is absent, no movements’ disorder, in other words the patient isn’t similar to “violent loony” in the usual sense.

Autism Treatment

The type of autism treatment should be chosen individually. The most effective therapy combines several methods. Parents have to analyze all methods which are offered to them, and to decide what type of treatment is the most reasonable. If treatment and training program were correctly chosen the child autist will be successful in development.

Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are very effective for treatment of autism. It helps autist to feel better his own body and to control it. Patients receive independence and are trained in main life skills.

Children suffering from autism are trained according to the special program of behavioral management. The earlier it starts, the better will be future results. Treatment is a difficult and complicated matter. To achieve success many efforts and patience are necessary.

Apply the following medicines for autism treatment:

- Antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline). They are used for treatment of a depression and uneasiness as they reduce irritability, outbursts of anger, pathological recurrence of actions.

- Neuroleptics (risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole). They reduce hyperactivity, pathological recurrence of actions, aggression.

- Preparations of non-stimulating action (atomoxetine, guanfacine). They are used at treatment of hyper activity syndrome. Drugs increase ability to concentrate attention, reduce nervous exaltation.

- Analeptics (amphetamine, methylphenidate). They increase concentration, reduce impulsiveness.

- Anticonvulsants. Preparations reduce quantity and frequency of convulsions, stabilize behavior and mood.

At treatment of children the exact dosage of preparations is very important.

Cretinism

Cretinism is an endocrine disease arising because of dysfunction of thyroid gland. It is expressed by lag of physical and mental development. There is an endemic cretinism (multiple cases in a certain area) and sporadic (cases which aren’t connected to the area). A cretinism can be a congenital pathology but sometimes happens in development of child.

Causes

 

Causes of cretinism development are connected with shortage of hormones of a thyroid gland. It can be heriditary disorder of ferment system due to what there is a nontoxic goiter and a sporadic cretinism. In other cases a cretinism is connected with disorder of thyroid gland formation, its underdevelopment, the wrong locating or total absence. Danger is constituted by goiter which hast pregnant mother, her treatment with a radioiodine, shortage of iodine and selenium. Marriage between relatives is also one of cretinism causes.

Symptoms

At a cretinism physical development is broken. Growth of teeth retards, body do not grow (nanism). Patients have a disproportionate body build (big head, short extremities), deformations of bones and joints, wide round face with blunt expression, wide distance between eyes, large tongue, a poor facial expression. Hearing sense and the speech are broken. Internals are diminished, sexual are underdeveloped. Mental development suffers (from a mild debility to an idiocy). Patient is flaccid, sleepy.

Cretinism treatment

Patients with a cretinism are compelled to be treated all their life. Hormones of a thyroid gland should be prescribed as soon as possible (thyroidin, triiodothyronine). For prophylaxis it is important to use enough iodine with nutrition. Usually salt going on sale is iodinated.

Imbecility

Imbecility is an average oligophrenia extent (mental retardation). Defect of mental development congenital or is acquired in the early childhood, during life it doesn’t increase.

The reasons of an imbecility are caused with disorder within pregnancy period of mother (animal protein malnutrition, smoking, infections, radiation), fetus injuries during childbirth delivery. Iodine shortage in the early childhood can cause an imbecility.

Symptoms of an imbecility

- Lag in development of intellect. Child starts speaking too late, sometimes cannot read at all, hardly counts.

- Lag in physical development. The child starts going too late, his movements are badly coordinated, clumsy, swinging.

- Difficulties at self-service. The patient is capable to carry out the elementary actions (to drink from a mug, to hold a spoon, sometimes to wash the dishes, to tie laces). It isn’t capable to independent life.

- Speech underdevelopment. The patient says short, simple phrases, understands the speech simple on content. At expression his thoughts person uses a facial expression, elaborate gestures.

- Memory underdevelopment. The patient hardly memorizes a short fragment of a poem.

- Obeyence, suggestibility. The person with oligophrenia easily gets to the company of drug addicts, lawbreakers.

- Absence or weakening of will. The person can perform a task only at a constant control over him.

- Emotional disorders. These are outbursts of rage, irritability. Patients are very attached to relatives.

Treatment of an imbecility

Apply the agents strengthening feed of brain (nootropic). Outbursts of aggression require sedative drugs. The child needs a special school where teachers will help get a social adaptation.

Idiocy

Idiocy is the most expressed extent of congenital or acquired in the early childhood intellectual retardation (oligophrenia). Defect of mental development doesn’t increase in the subsequent life.

Disorders in development of nervous system arise during intrauterine growth period or in the first months of child life. Injury of brain can happen caused with trauma or hypoxia aborning. Deficiency of iodine in mother’s food and child also negatively influences on the development of brain functions.

Smoking during pregnancy, rubella during pregnancy, congenital syphilis and radiation are important risk factors.

Idiocy symptoms

- Sharp lag of children in physical development. Sick children with retardation start raising the head, sit, walk. Purposeful actions are very difficult, the movements are badly coordinated, sweeping.

- Underdevelopment or absence of the intelligent speech. The speech of patient with an idiocy often consists of mooing, shouts.

- Absence of conscious thinking. Due to absence of speech and disability to read the patient can’t comprehend anything.

- Disability to recognize people and things. As a rule patients don’t recognize the relatives, eat inedible subjects.

- Lack of ability to self-service. Idiots can’t dress, brush teeth.

- Disorder of emotions. Fit of spleen, hatred, irritability.

Treatment of an idiocy

Continuous supervision in clinics or houses for mentally retarded is required for patients with an idiocy. It is necessary to look after patients carefully (to walk, make hygienic procedures, to dress), to feed (patients can’t hold a spoon).

At outbursts of aggression sedative drugs are prescribed. Nootropic medicines improve the state of the patient.